- Unit Question - Why does perspective matter? What factors can influence people’s perspectives? What social opportunities and problems arise from an interconnected global economy?
- Historical Context – The Cold War, International Realignment, Contemporary Society, United States as a “Super Power”, Korean War, Vietnam War, War at Home, & Civil Rights Movement
- Final Assessment - The Counterculture (Music) Task
America: The Story of Us
(History Channel Documentary)
Rise of a Superpower
The final two episodes of this series look at defining moments in U.S. history from 1945 on and trace them back to their antecedents in earlier American history. Some of the nation's most prominent personalities and leaders share their ideas on the definitive moments in American history, and reflect on what is unique about the U.S.
Mini-Task: Answer the following questions in your COMP books and be able and willing to discuss with the class.
- What inventions do you think have been most important in U.S. history and why?
- What do you think have been the five most important events in U.S. history since WWII?
- Many historians debate whether or not the U.S. has seen continual progress throughout its history, or if there have been moments of back-peddling or regression. How do you define progress in history? Do you think the U.S. has always progressed? Discuss.
- If you could interview one American about our nation’s past, who would it be and why?
- The Greatest Generation built the Interstate Highway system in only 5 years.
- They produced 80% of the world's cars.
- They built 13 million homes in 10 years following the end of World War II and it cost only $71,000 in today's currency.
- The Greatest Generation produced a baby (Baby Boomer Generation) every 10 seconds!
- They made 15 times more than Europeans during this time.
- The U.S. Army was desegregated in 1948.
- The U.S. government spent an average of $4,000 ($20,000 today) per U.S. citizen on nuclear and military technology. While the average salary was $4,237 dollars ($24,000 today) in 1950.
3. Who led the 1st Russian Revolution in 1917? HINT: Before Vladimir Lenin (image to the left) and the Bolsheviks take power.
4. What was the likely fate of Russians who questioned or opposed Lenin or Stalin?
5. Most credit the creation of communism to what 19th century thinker? What was his opinion of capitalism?
6. What did Winston Churchill mean by, "...an iron curtain has descended across the Continent?"
7. Who was the president of Yugoslavia after World War II?
8. How did President Harry S. Truman attempt to stop the spread of Soviet Russia and communism?
Marshall Plan & McCarthyism
- How does the Marshall Plan prove a lot has been learned since the end of World War I? HINT: ThinkGermany!
- Why do think the Soviet Union and countries controlled by the Soviet Union denied aid?
- The Marshall Plan can be viewed as extremely unselfish, but what was the large benefit to the U.S. economy and manufacturing? In addition to your response, was there an additional agenda or motive for the Marshall Plan? HINT: Think Cold War!
- Some historians have argued that the Civil Rights Movement famous after Martin Luther King Jr. and during the presidencies of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, really started under President Harry S. Truman. Cite one example. HINT: Try this Jim Crow Stories: Harry S. Truman Supports Civil Rights (1947-1948)
- What made communism attractive to many U.S. citizens from the Great Depression to the post-World War II era? HINT: Start reading p. 40
- How did the attractiveness, sympathy, or simple understanding of communism come to a dramatic end in the United States?
- After World War II and the Chinese Civil War ended, who is the communist leader of China?
- What did the Truman administration call the Korean War because it was never authorized by Congress? More on the Korean War a bit later!
- What was the HUAC? HINT: Try this History Channel: HUAC
- Was Joseph McCarthy's "list of 205 names" real? Why did he do it?
- What 1952 presidential candidate was "blacklisted" by Senator McCarthy?
- Why did the American public believe Joseph "McCarthyism" McCarthy? Give an example.
- Why didn't Congressman stand up against Joseph McCarthy (image on the right)?
- History Learning Site: The Cold War
- The Cold War Part 1: From World War to Cold War
- The Cold War Part 2: Containment
- CRASH COURSE: The Cold War (US History)
- CRASH COURSE: The Cold War (World History)
- CRASH COURSE: Cold War in Asia (World History)
- Pretty Much the Cold War (Funny Short Video)
- Operation Paperclip (NHD Student Project) Video
- NY Times: Operation Paperclip
The Korean War (The Forgotten War)
Birth of the Civil Rights Movement
- I know you remember the Supreme Court decision of Plessy v. Ferguson (see the Before Progress section far above), which stated "separate but equal" re-establishing segregation in the United States. Before the historic Brown v. Board of Education, Briggs v. Clarendon County challenged separate but equal by showing the vast difference in educational spending for black students compared to white students. So, how much was spent on black students compared to white students in Clarendon County in South Carolina?
- What National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) leader and great-grandson of a slave and later Supreme Court Justice, argued the Brown v. Board of Education case at the Supreme Court?
- What was the Supreme Court's decision regarding the famous Brown v. Board of Education? What is the historical impact of this decision?
- What was the Supreme Court's decision regarding Tinker v. Des Moines?
- What did Mike King change his name to?
- Name the two influential and enlightened thinkers that inspired Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s sit-ins, peaceful protests, boycotts, and civil disobedience policies?
- Where does Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. start his career as a preacher? [HINT: Beginning of the Civil Rights Movement]
- What did Rosa Parks do as a member of the NAACP?
- Why were members of the NAACP surprised at the arrest of Rosa Parks? How does the NAACP respond to Rosa Parks' arrest? Who led the boycott?
- Was life like for the Melba Pattillo and the other nine African-Americans at Central High in Little Rock Arkansas after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision?
- What did President Dwight D. Eisenhower do to secure the safe education for these African-Americans at Central High? Why didn't he act sooner?
- How did Birmingham, Alabama respond to the government attempts desegregate the city?
- Who helped finance and elect Eugene "Bull" Connor as Birmingham Commissioner (Police Chief)? Why did residents of Birmingham, even those considered "kindhearted", support or allow the racist policies of "Bull" Connor?
- How, although not their intentions, did the racist leaders of Birmingham actually help the Civil Rights Movement? HINT: Try this MLK Jr.'s "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" also think TV!
- How did "Bull" Connor respond to the nonviolent protests of over 1,600 kids?
- What happened to the 16th Street Baptist Church on September 15, 1963?
- Who did President John F. Kennedy put in charge of justice issues for African Americans? Why choice?
- What Civil Rights Movement organization did Dr. Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. help create?
- What event took place on August 28, 1963 in Washington D.C.? Who's idea was it?
- Name a few celebrities that supported, or better yet, where in attendance at the March on Washington? HINT: Try this AJC: Famous Faces-March on Washington 1963
- What famous speech did Dr. Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. deliver on August 28, 1963?
- What famous African American leader died around the time of the March on Washington? HINT: We learned about him and his famous debates earlier this school year!
- Who were the Black Panthers? What was their message? HINT: Try this Marxist.org - Black Panthers History
The Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy
- What award did Martin Luther King Jr. win at the young age of 35? What did he do with the prize money?
- What did the Norwegian students teach or prove to Martin Luther King Jr.?
- The 15th Amendment (see Reconstruction period above) guarantees that everyone has the right to vote. So, why didn't African Americans in Alabama and Mississippi vote in 1964? Why did Martin Luther King Jr. go to Selma, Alabama that same year?
- What did Malcolm X mean by, "If the white people realize what the alternative is, perhaps they will be more willing to hear Dr. King"?
- Why did Malcolm X break away from the Nation of Islam or Black Muslims? HINT: Try this US History: Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam
- Why was the death of Jimmy Lee Jackson too much for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Civil Rights Movement to bear?
- What happened on the Edmund Pettus Bridge between Selma and Montgomery, Alabama? How does the tragedy eventually help the Civil Rights Movement?
- After the tragedy of Selma, known as "Bloody Sunday", how did President Lyndon B. Johnson respond on live television to over 70 million people?
- As the Civil Rights Movement progressed, Martin Luther King Jr. viewed the struggles as more than an issue of race. The problems of the United States included poverty, sexism, and labor injustice. So why was Martin Luther King Jr. disappointed shortly after agreeing to a Poor People's Campaign? Why did he proceed to Memphis? HINT: Start reading p. 157
- What did Martin Luther King Jr. mean by, "Strangely enough, I would turn to the Almighty and say if you allow me to live just a few years in the second half of the 20th Century, I will be happy"?
- Who was responsible for the assassination of Dr. Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968?
- Who broke the news to African Americans in Indianapolis, which was televised to the entire nation? Violence erupted around the entire country almost immediately, but not in Indianapolis. Why do you suppose that is?
- How many cities burst into riots after the death of Martin Luther King Jr.? How did the Black Panthers respond?
- Which of the African Americans writers from 1940-1970, mentioned on pages 162-164, do you most admire? Why?
- Death of another 1960s American icon! What made Robert "Bobby" Kennedy so popular as a presidential candidate in 1968? June 6, 1968, Bobby Kennedy was shot by Palestinian nationalist Sirhan Sirhan. What did the historian mean by, "Born the son of wealth, he died a champion of outcasts of the world"?
- PBS: Civil Rights Timeline of Events
- CRASH COURSE: Civil Rights Movement
- Racism, School Desegregation Laws and the Civil Rights Movement in the United States (Full Documentary)
- Separate But Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education
- BIO: Rosa Parks
- BIO: Martin Luther King Jr.
- BIO: Jesse Jackson
- BIO: Malcolm X
- PBS: Malcolm X (FullDocumentary)
- BIO: Emmett Till
- The Murder Of Emmett Till - Documentary
- Martin Luther King - I Have A Dream Speech - August 28, 1963 (Video)
- PBS: Rise & Fall of Jim Crow (Full Documentary)
- Martin Luther King and Malcolm X Debate
- Bloody Sunday in Selma Alabama
- U2: Sunday Bloody Sunday (Song)
- President Lyndon B. Johnson Remarks upon Signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964
- The Greatest Speech Ever - Robert F Kennedy Announcing The Death Of Martin Luther King
- Assassination of Martin Luther King part 1 of 2
- 60 Minutes: Interview with James Earl Ray: Part One (1977)
- Robert F Kennedy assassination
- Interview with Sirhan Sirhan
- Eyes on the Prize - 01- Awakenings, 1954-1956
- Eyes on the Prize - 02 - Fighting Back, 1957-1962
- Eyes on the Prize - 03 - Ain't Scared of Your Jails, 1960-1961
- Eyes on the Prize - 04 - No Easy Walk 1962-1966
- Eyes on the Prize - 05 - Mississippi, Is This America 1962-1964
- Eyes on the Prize - 06 - Bridge to Freedom 1965
- Eyes on the Prize - 07 - The Time Has Come, 1964-1965
- Eyes on the Prize - 08 - Two Societies, 1965-1968
- Eyes on the Prize - 09 - Power! 1967-1968
- Eyes on the Prize - 10 - The Promised Land 1967-1968
- Eyes on the Prize - 11 - Ain't Gonna Shuffle No More 1964-1972
- Who is the youngest President ever elected?
- Who took power of Cuba two years before the election and inauguration of President John F. Kennedy? Who was the militant revolutionary from Argentina that helped the communist Cuban revolution? HINT: BBC: Che Guevara (1928 - 1967)
- How and why was the small island country of Cuba a real threat to the U.S.A.?
- Who took power as the Soviet Premier after the death of Joseph Stalin?
- What was the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) plan, before the Bay of Pigs disaster, for dealing with Cuba? Was this President Kennedy's idea?
- What was the Bay of Pigs? Describe one failed CIA assassination attempt of Fidel Castro. HINT: Try these Mental Floss: 10 Ways the CIA Tried to Kill Castro or The Guardian: 638 ways to kill Castro
- What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?What secret concession did JFK make to resolve the crisis peacefully?
- What was the public opinion regarding the Vietnam War in the early 1960s? Remember, Congress never approved the Korean and Vietnam Wars, so what were the American troops called in the conflict?
- When President John F. Kennedy spoke to the American people about the "New Frontier", what did he mean? HINT: Try this US History: Kennedy's New Frontier or JFK: Frontier Speech
- What did the critics of President Kennedy call him and his plans of civil rights, equal pay, and aid to the poor? HINT: Think same criticism of President Barack Obama and FDR
- Premier Khrushchev said of President Kennedy, "It quickly became clear that he [Kennedy] understood...that an improvement in relations [with Russia] was the only rational course." How does this comment from Premier Khrushchev prove President Kennedy had survived the Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis disasters and the U.S. could possibly survive the Cold War?
- Why did President Kennedy decide to visit Texas in November of 1963, despite his press secretary's warning, "DON'T LET THE PRESIDENT COME TO DALLAS...IT IS TOO DANGEROUS"?
- How did the people of Texas greet the President and his wife?
- President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963. According to the Warren Commission's Report who was the lone assassin? HINT: History.com: Warren Commission
- If we are to believe Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone, why did he do it? HINT: National Archive: Warren Commission-Chapter 7: Lee Harvey Oswald: Background and Possible Motives
- Unfortunately, it is unlikely we will ever know whether Oswald acted alone because he was silenced two days after the death of the President, by whom? Why did he kill Oswald? HINT: History.com: Ruby kills Oswald
- Conspiracy Time! So who really killed President Kennedy? HINT: Try Death of a President (again) JFK Resources below to help you decide.
- The Zapruder Film: JFK Assassination
- JFK Assassination Magic Bullet Theory Computer Recreation
- Oswald Shooting - Digitally Remastered
- Jack Ruby "The World Will Never Know" Video
- USA Today: Top JFK Conspiracy Theories
- History.com: JFK Assassination Conspiracy Theories
- LiveScience: Top 10 Kennedy Assassination Conspiracy Theories
- Final Interview with Jack Ruby: 12/16/1966
- LBJ interview with Walter Cronkite (1969) "I don't trust the Warren Commission"
- Seinfeld: Magic Loogie Theory (just for fun)
The Counterculture Movement
The Counterculture (Music) Task: Music in the 1960s becomes more political in nature. Your task is to discover a musician of the 1960s and find a song that embodies the Counterculture Movement (read above). Share that song with the class, it's meaning including specific lyrical examples. You can find any musician, from the era, you want, but here is a list of musicians to consider. If you find it difficult to select a musician or song, also see Counterculture Resources:
- Gil Scott-Heron
- Bob Dylan
- The Beatles but mainly John Lennon
- Crosby, Stills, Nash, & Young especially Neil Young
- Jimi Hendrix
- Johnny Cash
- Grateful Dead
- Joan Baez
- Creedence Clearwater Revival
- Jefferson Airplane
- The Doors
- Mavis Staples (Chicago's own!)
- Sam Cooke
- Marvin Gaye
- Bob Marley
- Rodriguez (popular musician in the Anti-Apartheid Movement of South Africa)
- 40 great protest songs, A to Z
- About.com: Anti-war protest songs of the '60s and '70s
- Rebel Music through the Decades
- VH1 Behind the Music: Woodstock
- U.S. vs. John Lennon (Full Documentary)
- BED PEACE starring John Lennon & Yoko Ono
- John Lennon's Imagine, Made into a Comic by Pablo Stanley
- Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young Ohio 1970 Kent State University
- Country Joe and The Fish "I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-To-Die Rag" (Live at Woodstock 1969)
- Vietnam War- Students for a Democratic Society "To Change the World"
- The Weather Underground (Full Documentary)
- Black Panther Leader of Chicago, Fred Hampton on the Weather Underground
- Bio.com: Cesar Chavez
- Chicano! PBS Documentary - The Struggle in the Fields: VIDEO 1 of 4
- Chicano! PBS Documentary - The Struggle in the Fields: VIDEO 2 of 4
- Chicano! PBS Documentary - The Struggle in the Fields: VIDEO 3 of 4
- Chicano! PBS Documentary - The Struggle in the Fields: VIDEO 4 of 4
- ¡Si, Se Puede! (Yes, We Can!): Bobby Kennedy Visits Cesar Chavez
- President Obama creates monument to Cesar Chavez